Amphibians and extremly diluted
To document an
including inter-laboratory and independent repetition of experiments on the effect of highly diluted
on the metamorphosis of highland amphibian larvae. Research papers (see links) were published in peer reviewed, mostly PUBMED / MEDLINE listed journals, with impact factors up to 4.5.
was used because this hormone plays a key role in amphibian metamorphosis. Starting from a dilution of 10-4 parts by weight of tetra-
, the substance T30x was obtained by 26 successive steps of tenfold dilution in pure
followed by vigorous agitation and was tested versus analogously prepared water (W30x). Grass frog
were taken from alpine biotopes and were treated with T30x or W30x from the 2-legged stage on by adding 3microL of probes per animal to the basin water at intervals of 48h. Two end-points were considered: first, entry into the 4-legged stage, and second, tail reduction. All experiments were performed blind.
Experiments were performed since the early 1990s by the initial team (P. C. Endler, based at that time at
and W. Scherer-
) and by independent researchers (R. van
Federal Institute of Veterinary Medical Investigation Graz
, G. Bach of
KIKOM, Bern University
). A total of 22 sub-experiments were performed, each involving 60–100 animals per group, 15 by the initial team and 7 by the 5 independent researchers.
shows that in most sub-experiments – the sole exception being two performed and reported by the initial team themselves – a trend was found of T30x-animals being slower (up to 6 h within 3 days) than W30x-animals. Pooled T30x values obtained by the initial team were 10.4% smaller than W30x values (100%) (
< 0.01 and d > 0.8), and pooled T30x values from the 5 independent researchers were 12.4% smaller (p < 0.01 and d > 0.8), i.e. differences between groups were statistically highly significant and the effect size was large in either case. Analogously, the number of animals entering the juvenile stage with reduced tail was smaller for T30x than for W30x. For details, see
A metamorphosis hormone diluted beyond Avogadro’s limit using a process of stepwise dilution and agitation according to instructions of homeopathy produced a clear trend of metamorphosis inhibition. This was observed by and
were made accessible by 7 researchers from
of highland frogs were
. A detailed account of the difficulties when using
survey on the international
have been published previously. The
are interested in an open-minded interdisciplinary discussion of results and research strategies.